• Etymology, English, Fern

    Etymology

    From Middle English fern, from Old English fearn, from Proto-West Germanic *farn, from Proto-Indo-European *pornóm (“feather, wing; fern, leaf”), from *p(t)erH- (“fern”). Cognate with West Frisian fear, Dutch varen, German Farn, Lithuanian spar̃nas, Avestan 𐬞𐬀𐬭𐬆𐬥𐬀‎ (parəna), Kamkata-viri por, Sanskrit पर्ण (parṇá).

    Pronunciation

    • (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /fɜːn/
    • (General American) IPA(key): /fɝn/

    Noun

    fern (plural ferns)

    1. Any of a group of some twenty thousand species of vascular plants classified in the division Pteridophyta that lack seeds and reproduce by shedding spores to  an alternation of generations.
  • Etymology, Khmer, ទឹក

    Etymology

    From Proto-Austroasiatic *ɗaːk (“water”). Cognates from other Mon-Khmer languages: Northern Khmer ตึก, Bahnar đak, Eastern Mnong dak, Pacoh dâq/dơq, Vietnamese nước and Central Nicobarese râk/dâk.

    Pronunciation

    Standard IPA: /tɨk/

    Noun

    1. water, liquid, juice
  • Etymology, English, Crusader

    Etymology

    From crusade +‎ -er, from French croisade, introduced in English (in the French spelling) by 1575. The modern spelling emerges c. 1760,. Middle French croisade is introduced in the 15th century, based on Spanish cruzada (late 14th century) and Old Occitan crozada (early 13th century), both reflecting Medieval Latin cruciātacruxiata, the feminine singular of the adjective cruciātus used as an abstract noun. Adjectival cruciātus originally meant “tormented; crucified”, but from the 12th century was also used for “marked with a cross; making the sign of the cross” and eventually “taking the cross” in the sense of “going on a crusade”. Old Occitan crozada is used in the sense “[the Albigensian] crusade” in the Song of the Albigensian crusade, written c. 1213. From vernacular usage, Middle Latin cruciāta also comes to be used in the sense “crusade” from about 1270.

    Pronunciation

    • (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /kɹuːˈseɪdə/
    • (General American) IPA(key): /kɹuˈseɪdɚ/
    • Rhymes: -eɪdə(r)

    Noun

    crusader (plural crusaders)

    1. (historical) A fighter in the medieval Crusades. quotations ▼the crusaders of the Middle Ages
    2. (figuratively) A person engaged in a crusade.
  • Etymology, Belarusian, Bідэлец

    Etymology

    From Polish widelec, from widły +‎ -iec, from Proto-Slavic *vidla, probably originally plural form of **vidlo, from *viti (“to bend, twist”) +‎ *-dlo.

    Pronunciation

    IPA(key): [vʲiˈdelʲet͡s]

    Noun

    відэ́лец • (vidéljec) m inan (genitive відэ́льца, nominative plural відэ́льцы, genitive plural відэ́льцаў) – fork (for eating)

  • People, Casimir III the Great

    1310 April 30 AD. He was born in Kowal, Kuyavia.

    1325 AD. He married Aldona of Lithuania.

    1333 AD. He attained the throne, his position was in danger, as his neighbours did not recognise his title and instead called him “king of Kraków”.

    1335 AD. In the Treaty of Trentschin, he was forced to relinquish his claims to Silesia “in perpetuity”.

    1339 AD. His wife dies.

    1341 AD. He married his second wife, Adelaide of Hesse. She was a daughter of Henry II, Landgrave of Hesse, and Elizabeth of Meissen.

    1347 March 11 AD. He introduced reforms to the Polish judicial system and sanctioned civil and criminal codes for Great and Lesser Poland, earning the title “the Polish Justinian”.

    1355 AD. In Buda, Casimir designated his nephew Louis I of Hungary as his successor should he produce no male heir, just as his father had with Charles I of Hungary to gain help against Bohemia.

    1356 AD. He divorces his wife, and marries his mistress.

    1364 AD. He divorces his mistress.

    1364 AD. He organized a meeting of kings in Kraków at which he exhibited the wealth of the Polish kingdom.

    1364 AD. Given the permission from pope Urban V, he established the University of Kraków, the oldest Polish University.

    1365 AD. He married his fourth wife Hedwig of Żagań.

    1370 November 5 AD. He died from an injury received while hunting.